RUSSIAN  FEDERATION | FASTENER EURASIA MAGAZINE
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RUSSIAN  FEDERATION

Capital: Moscow
Total Area: 17,098,246 km2 (6,601,670 sq mi)
Population 2021 estimate: 146,171,015
GDP (PPP) Total 2021 estimate: $ 4,328 trillion
GDP (nominal) Total 2021 estimate: $ 1.710 trillion
Export (billion USD): 435.7
Import (billion USD): 252.1
Foreign Exchange Reserve ($ billion): 563
Currency: Russian ruble (₽) (RUB)


International Organizations of Russia is a member: United Nations, Council of Europe, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, World Trade Organization, Eurasian Economic Union, Common Wealth of Independent States, Shanghai Cooperation Organization, Common Security Treaty Organization, Black Sea Economic Cooperation Organization, Conference on Cooperation and Confidence Building in Asia, Southeast Asia Union of Countries, International Atomic Energy Agency.

Russia, located in the eastern Europe and northern Asia, is the largest country in the world with an area of 17,098,246 square kilometers. Occupying one-tenth of all the land on Earth, it borders 16 countries in total. Additionally, it is the eighth the most crowded country in the world in terms of its population as there are 146,171,015 people living in the Russian Federation. While the vast majority of the Russian people live in the urban areas, there are many people that prefer living in the rural areas. The Russian Federation has got coasts on three oceans in the Atlantic, Pacific, and Arctic.

Moscow, with estimated 12 million inhabitants, is the capital city of Russia and the most of the population lives in the European parts of the country. St. Petersbug, along with Moscow, are the two most important cities in the country in that they are the cultural and financial centres. Generally, Russia is known for its extreme climate and weather conditions . There are vast reserves of oil, gas and precious metals which are the main components of the economy of the Russian Federation. They export their products to many European countries. It can be concluded that the natural resources such as oil, coal, iron ore, gold, and aluminum are among the biggest assets of the Russian Federation.

 

ECONOMY

Main trade partners: China, Germany, Netherlands, USA, Belarus, Italy.
Major export items: Petroleum, natural gas, fuel; metals; chemical products.
Main import items: Pharmaceuticals, electrical devices for telephone and telegraph, machinery and equipment, chemical products, automobiles, food and agricultural products.
Main exported products: Fresh fruits and vegetables, land transportation vehicles and their parts, textile and ready-made clothing products, electrical machinery and devices, machinery and devices used in various industrial branches, finished products made of metals and shoes.
Main imported products: Mineral fuels-oils; coal; sunflower, safflower and cottonseed oils; iron and steel; aluminum.

(IMF) According to the statement made by the International Monetary Fund, the Russian economy will be 3 percent this year, 3.9 percent in 2022, 2.1 percent in 2023, 1.8 percent in 2024, 1.8 percent in 2025, and it was predicted to grow 1.8 percent in 2026.
St. Petersburg is Russia's second largest production center and the Russian Federation's largest port. Production in the city has concentrated on the machinery and equipment sector. The main production areas are shipbuilding, electric generators and turbines, machine tools, food industry products (including beverages and tobacco), automotive industry, metallurgy, chemical industry and leather production.

In recent years, St. Petersburg has become a production center in the automotive industry. Leading automotive manufacturers in the world such as Hyundai, Toyota, General Motors, Nissan and Scania has investments in the region.

Special Economic Zones (SEZ) in Russia
The Russian government decided to establish "Special Economic Zones" in order to support the vision of transforming the country's economy based on natural resources into an economy based on innovation. SEZs are one of the most effective instruments in attracting investment to the country.

According to the current legislation, there are 28 IUUs of 4 different types:

*Industrial and Manufacturing zones: Republic of Tatarstan (Alabuga), Lipetsk, Samara, Sverdlovsk, Pskov and Kaluga regions.
*Technology and Innovation zones: Moscow, St. Petersburg, Tomsk and Moscow Region (Dubna) and the Republic of Tatarstan.
*Port regions (for the establishment of logistics centers): Ulyanovsk (Volga region), Murmansk and Khabarovsk (Far East) regions.
The focus is currently on creating technical cooperation and clusters among companies in the regions. Togliatti SEZ (automotive main and supplier industry cluster) in Samara region, Litpetsk Region SEZ  (automobile tires cluster), Ulyanovsk port (aviation equipment cluster) are examples of clustering studies. The privileges provided to investors in special economic zones can reduce the investor's expenses up to 30%.

Transport Infrastructure
St. Petersburg port ranks first among Russian Federation and Baltic Sea ports in terms of container shipments, and also ranks third in the Russian Federation in terms of cargo transport volume (approximately 60 million tons). In rail transport, on the other hand, St. Petersburg ranks second after Moscow in terms of volume. There are 10 railway lines connecting Russia to Finland and Estonia. Pulkova Airport, the only international airport in the city, is one of the largest airports in Russia.

Distribution Channel
St. Petersburg, consumption and industry the European region of Russia it is the main port of entry for goods, the distribution channel has had a regular structure in recent years.  Taking advantage of this increasingly professional distribution structure, offering products to the market is getting easier to a large extent.
Successful in the market businesses move by creating a mix of various options across distribution channels. A quadruple distribution consisting of manufacturers, importers, warehouses and product distribution in the retail sector system has been formed.
Source: www.ticaret.gov.tr

Overview of Russian Manufacturing Industry
Automotive Industry In Russia & Statistics 
The steadily growing Russian car market, with Moscow city accounting for the second largest car market countrywide, is expected to amount to over 50 million passenger and light commercial vehicles by 2021.

The Lada Brand
The national manufacturer Lada, the central player of the Russian automotive industry, retained over 20 percent of the market share in 2019. The brand was leading in both primary and secondary markets as of May 2020. Two of its models made it in the top three of the most sold passenger car ranking, with Granta leading the list at over 84 thousand units in sales as of the first half of 2020.

Car Sales and Trade
After a gradual decline in sales of passenger cars and light commercial vehicles (LCVs), the trend turned positive in 2017. Sales volume climbed up to 1.7 million units in 2019. A sport utility vehicle (SUV), the most desired type of car by the Russian customer, generated the largest market sales turnover by the first half of 2020, with the Korean Hyundai as the most sold brand in this category. The second largest segment in terms of sales was B-class with over 106.5 thousand units sold during the first nine months of 2020.
As for trade, imports volume has been steadily shrinking over the last years. In 2019, Russian car exports exceeded the import value of passenger and light commercial vehicles roughly twice in volume. However, Lada exports to European Union have been discontinued since 2018, due to ecological regulations in the European market.

Vehicle Production
Production dynamics, similar to sales, saw a moderate improvement after 2017. However, foreign localized brands’ production levels, which represented over 70 percent of aggregate passenger cars and LCV production as of the first half of 2020, accelerated and are expected to reach over 1.1 billion cars in production by 2024. Only about 12 percent of car dealership networks were of national origin by 2019.

In March 2021, sales of new motor vehicles in Russia, based on registration data, fell by 10.4% year on year to 155.763 vehicles. In January March 2021, the total sales were 391.043 vehicles*, down 5.7% year on year, of which:

• Passenger cars – 135.395 units in March 2021, down 14.3% YOY; 341 298 units in January-March 2021, down 7.5% YOY. Among them electric vehicles – 117 units in March 2021, up 631.3% YOY; 304 units in January-March 2021, up 660.0% YOY.
• Light commercial vehicles including light trucks (N1 category, without pickups) and minibuses (M2 category) – 10.946 units in March 2021, up 28.0% YOY; 26.549 units in January-March 2021, up 14.9% YOY.
• Pickups – 805 units in March 2021, down 7.7% YOY; 1.895 units in January-March 2021, down 27.6% YOY.
• Trucks (except N1 category) including special-purpose vehicles – 7.701 units in March 2021, up 45.5% YOY; 18.685 units in January-March 2021, up 12.1% YOY.
• Buses (except М2 category) – 916 units in March 2021, down 18.2% YOY; 2.616 units in January-March 2021, down 24.2% YOY.
*Without sales to military, law enforcement and diplomatic agencies in RF.

Source: www.statista.com, www.aebrus.ru.

Aviation Industry
Russia's aircraft industry is one of the backbone branches of the country's economy. It is one of the most science-intensive hi-tech sectors and employs the largest number of skilled personnel. The production and value of the military aircraft branch far outstrips other defense industry sectors.

The aviation industry is the most developed branch of Russian industry. The industry is characterized by a very high knowledge intensity and the need for significant capital investment. The own aviation industry is the most important characteristic of the technological potential of the country's national economy. The industry is of great importance for the development of the state - general economic, defense and scientific. This industry makes it possible to master and launch into production new military, civilian and dual-purpose products. 

On April 15, 2014, the Government of the Russian Federation adopted Decree No. 303 "On Approval of the Russian Federation State Program" Development of the Aviation Industry for 2013-2025". The Federal Target Program (FTP) is aimed at addressing the competitiveness of the civil aviation sector in the domestic and foreign markets of civil aviation equipment. The goal of the program is a fundamental change in the strategic competitive position of the civil sector of the aviation industry in Russia, which consists in creating on its basis a new world center for aircraft building and winning by 2025 at least 5% of the world market of sales of civil aviation equipment.
Source: www.globalsecurity.org

Machine Building
Russia’s machine-building industry provides most of the country’s needs, including steam boilers and turbines, electric generators, grain combines, automobiles, and electric locomotives, and it fills much of its demand for shipbuilding, electric-power-generating and transmitting equipment, consumer durables, machine tools, instruments, and automation components. Russia’s factories also produce armaments, including tanks, jet fighters, and rockets, which are sold to many countries and contribute significantly to Russia’s export income.

Chemical Industry
The centers of the chemical industry traditionally have been areas where critical raw materials and allied industries were available. As oil and gas input increased in the second half of the 20th century, new chemical plants were built, particularly in the Volga, Ural, and North Caucasus zones and in other regions served by pipelines, which helped to reduce the dependence on traditional resources. The major divisions of the chemical industry are paints and varnishes, rubber and asbestos products, synthetic tar and plastic products, mined chemical products, household chemicals and washing compounds, mineral fertilizers, chemical fibers and filaments, and paper and pulp. Chemical industries requiring large quantities of electric power,  such as those based on cellulose, are particularly important in Siberia, where both timber and electricity are plentiful industries requiring large quantities of electric power, such as those based on cellulose, are particularly important in Siberia, where both timber and electricity are plentiful.

Trade 
Russian main exports are energy (oil and petroleum products, gas, coal), rolled steel, ferrous and nonferrous metals and minerals. The greater part of Russian exports belongs to oil and petroleum products. Other leading exports are natural gas, timber, fertilizers, machinery and equipment, armaments. The foreign countries receive from Russia over 300 million tons of oil and approximately 250 billion cubic meters of gas.

Russia imports machinery and equipment, vehicles, consumer goods, foodstuffs, chemical products, industrial consumer goods. Major trading partners of Russia are Germany, Italy, China, Turkey, Poland, Switzerland, United Kingdom, United States, and Finland. 
Russia provides most of the needs of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries in oil and oil products, gas, timber, machinery and equipment. For the majority of CIS countries Russia remains the main trading partner.

Natural Resources 
Natural resources potential of Russia is over 20% of the world’s reserves. This fact places Russia on a special place among industrialized countries. Natural resources used by the economy of Russia account for  95.7% of national wealth. There are large deposits of fuel and energy resources: oil, natural gas, coal and uranium ore.

Russia is ranked first in the world by gas reserves (32% of world’s reserves, 30% of world production), the second in oil production (10% share of world production), the third - in coal reserves (22 coal basins, 115 fields, including those in European Russia - about 15.6% in Siberia - 66.8% in the Far East - 12.9%, in the Urals - 4.3%). In terms of reserves of iron ores Russia takes the first place, in tin – the second, lead - the third. Russia also occupies a leading position in the world in wood provision. In 2005 Russia was the richest country in gold reserves.

In Russia there are five major oil and gas provinces located in European part of the country and in Western Siberia in 10 regions and 11 provinces and republics: West Siberian, Volga-Urals, Timan-Pechora, the North Caucasus and the Caspian Sea area.

In addition, metal ores are mined on the country’s territory ores: iron, nickel, copper, aluminum, tin, polymetals, chromium, tungsten, gold, and silver. There is a great variety of non-metallic ores: phosphates, apatites, talc, asbestos, mica, potash and salt, diamonds, amber, precious and semiprecious stones. Very common are construction materials: sand, clay, limestone, marble, granite and other materials.
 

Steel Industry
Russian steel output continues to increase. Russian steelmakers produced 4.96 million tonnes of non-alloy semi-finished steel in February, up by 5.3% on-year, according to national statistical service Rosstat data monitored by Kallanish.
In January, output is estimated to have reached 5.33mt, more than 7.5% on-year. January’s finished steel output was up by 2.1% on-year at 1.56mt. However, pipe production decreased 9.8% to 840,000t. In 2020, Russian crude steel production reached 73.4mt, up 2.6% over 2019.

Fitch Ratings forecasts Russian demand in 2021 to increase by 4-6% on-year. The implementation of infrastructure investment projects with government support and the gradual recovery of the automotive industry brings along a growth in construction volumes.
The agency believes the negative effect of the new wave of Covid-19 will be much more moderate versus last spring, as the Russian government aims to avoid another lockdown.

ING bank says that “reduced global demand for oil, which has led to Russia’s OPEC+ commitments and is resulting in an ongoing circa 10% on-year drop in oil output” is a risk factor that could further hamper any industrial recovery in Russia. “The metals sector is showing uneven performance in recent months, suggesting high dependence on the volatile global mood,” ING adds.

Russia is the world's fourth-largest steel producer, behind China, Japan and the United States. The steel industry includes more than 1.5 thousand enterprises and organizations, 70% of them city-forming, and more than 660 thousand employees.
Russia's biggest steel producers are Severstal, Evraz Group, Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works and Novolipetsk Steel.
 

Fasteners & Fairs

Some important fairs the fastener industry participated in Russia 

(RUSSIA FAIRS 2021-2022)
-RosBuild - Russian Construction Week, -CABEX - CABLE, WIRE AND ACCESSORIES - International specialized Exhibition of Cables, Wires, Fastening Hardware and Installation Technologies, -METALLOOBRABOTKA.SVARKA Ural - International Metal Processing, Welding Equipment and Materials Trade Fair, -MosBuild (ehem. WorldBuild Moskova) - Moskova International Building and Construction Exhibition, -AutoWorld - International Motor Show,  -InterStroyExpo - International Exhibition of Building and Finishing Materials, -NEFTEGAZ - Exhibition of Equipment for the Oil and Gas Industries, -CranExpo - Specialized Exhibition of Material Handling Equipment, -METALLOOBRABOTKA - International Exhibition on Metalworking Equipment and Supply,  -Bauma CTT Russia - International Trade Fair for Construction Equipment and Technologies, -Litmash Russia - International Foundry, Foundry Materials and Equipment Exhibition, -Wire Russia - The International Wire and Cable Trade Fair in Russia - Uluslararası Tel ve Kablo Ticaret Fuarı,  -MIMS Automechanika MOSCOW - International Moscow Automotive Sub-Industry Fair,  -Interauto - International Automotive Industries Fair,  -ChipEXPO - International exhibition on electronics, components, technologies and equipment, -RADEL & AUTOMATION  International Electronics and Automation Instruments, and Production Technologies Fair and Forum,  -TECHNOFORUM - International Specialized Exhibition for Equipment and Technologies for Processing of Metal, Wood, Stones, Organic, Polymer and Composite Materials,  -Metal Expo - International Industrial Exhibition - Moscow International Metal Exhibition Incorporating Metallurgy, Machinetools & Metalworking, Pipes & Cabels,  -5pEXPO - International Forum of Exhibition Industry,  - FastTec - International Trade Exhibition of Fasteners.

According to FastTec's (Russia - International Trade Exhibition of Fasteners) records;
*Visitors are looking for:
Building fasteners – 265 (68%)
Engineering, automotive fasteners – 153 (40%)
Furniture fasteners, accessories – 146 (38%)
Fasteners for electrical – 116 (30%)
Consumables (drills, crowns, drills, diamond and grinding products) – 115 (30%)
Plastic fasteners – 111 (29%)
Fixture for plumbing and heating – 98 (25%)
Household fasteners – 97 (25%)
*Multiple choice answers

 

List Of Fasteners Imported By Russian Federation

Unit: US Dollar thousand

Exporters

Imported value in 2018

Imported value in 2019

Imported value in 2020

Total

855,206

896,034

828,392

China

339,149

368,536

346,802

Germany

106,017

93,099

87,779

Taiwan

53,251

51,965

48,842

Belarus

41,746

45,781

46,755

Italy

39,363

40,596

39,739

France

38,977

42,038

32,670

USA

27,872

31,033

27,526

Japan

34,985

38,475

27,164

S.Korea

28,837

28,609

23,050

Turkey

14,296

15,167

16,548

UK

9,377

10,820

12,692

Czechia

7,301

9,118

12,321

Poland

11,756

11,368

11,698

Switzerland

10,967

10,321

10,283

India

8,396

8,971

10,072

Finland

5,518

7,421

8,306

Spain

7,676

9,702

8,091

Sweden

5,608

6,101

6,284

Denmark

1,440

4,642

5,643

Source: ITC

 

List Of Fasteners Exported By Russian Federatio

Unit: US Dollar thousand

Importers

Exported value in 2018

Exported value in 2019

Exported value in 2020

Total

94,407

95,362

91,754

Kazakhstan

22,635

24,346

23,904

Belarus

23,493

21,257

20,161

Uzbekistan

4,351

5,170

6,489

India

4,895

5,434

6,064

Germany

6,511

6,485

5,786

Ukraine

6,718

4,781

4,178

France

3,236

3,346

2,718

China

1,856

2,530

2,422

Armenia

529

896

1,360

Turkey

88

448

1,290

Latvia

230

438

1,289

Austria

1,407

1,426

1,168

Lithuania

720

955

1,116

Sweden

930

1,790

1,018

Poland

863

2,552

979

Azerbaijan

1,406

1,003

938

Bangladesh

107

429

933

Estonia

346

410

672

Kyrgyzstan

500

650

642

Source: ITC